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PAPERS AVAILABLE FROM
THE LIFE HISTORY STUDIES PROGRAM
(Latest update 1-20-06) 

FOR COPIES WRITE TO:           Rolf Loeber or Magda Stouthamer-Loeber
     University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
     Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
     3811 O'Hara Street
     Pittsburgh, PA  15213
    
E-mail: loeberr@upmc.edu
                
stouthamerloeberm@upmc.edu

Note: Full text of publications sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention can be found on www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org.

Books are available from the publisher only and please note that the following papers are listed in only one category, even though they may fit under several topics.


Books
B1Stouthamer-Loeber, M. & Van Kammen, W. B. (1995). Data Collection and Management: A Practical Guide. Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.
B2Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
B3Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (Eds.) (1998), Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
B4Loeber, R. and Farrington, D. P. (Eds.) (2001). Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention, and Service Needs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
B5Loeber, R., Slot, N. W., & Sergeant, J. (Eds.) (2001). Ernstige En Gewelddadige Jeugdcriminaliteit: Omvang, Oorzaken, en Interventies [Serious and Violent Juvenile Delinquency in the Netherlands: Prevalence, Causes, and Interventions]. Houten/Diegem, Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghem.
General Overviews
GE1Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (1998). The development of male offending: Key findings from the first decade of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Studies in Crime and Crime Prevention, 7, 141-172. Republished in R. Bull (Ed.) (2001), Children and the law. The essential readings (pp. 336-380). Oxford: Blackwell. To be republished in Kindheit und Entwicklung, Zeitschrift für Klinische Kinderpsychologie. fulltext
GE2Browning, K., & Loeber, R. (Feb., 1999). Highlights of findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. OJJDP Fact Sheet, No. 95. fulltext
GE3Browning, K., Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Thornberry, T. P. (1999, April). Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program. OJJDP Fact Sheet. fulltext
GE4Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., Frick, P. J., & McBurnett, K. (2000). Findings on disruptive behavior disorders from the first decade of the Developmental Trends Study. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 37-60. fulltext
GE5Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., White, H.R., Wei, E. H., & Beyers, J. M. (2003). The development of male offending: Key findings from fourteen years of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. In T. Thornberry & M. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 93-136). New York: Kluwer/Plenum. fulltext
GE6Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Lynam, D. (2001). Male mental health problems, psychopathy and personality traits: Key findings from the first 14 years of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4, 273-297. fulltext
GE7Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Farrington, D.P., Lahey, B.B., Keenan, K., & White, H.R. (2002). Editorial Introduction: Three Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Development in Pittsburgh: the Developmental Trends Study, the Pittsburgh Youth Study, and the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 1-23. fulltext
GE8Thornberry, T.P., Huizinga, D., & Loeber, R. (2004.) Empirical findings and policy implications for the Causes and Correlates Studies. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. fulltext
Academic Achievement
AC1Frick, P. J., Kamphaus, R. W., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Christ, M. A., Hart, E. L., & Tannenbaum, L. E. (1991). Academic underachievement and the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 289-294.
AC2Maguin, E., Loeber, R., & LeMahieu, P. (1993). Does the relationship between poor reading and delinquency hold for different age and ethnic groups? Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 1, 88-100. fulltext
AC3Lynam, D.R., Moffitt, T., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1993). Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: Class, race, text motivation, school failure, or self-control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 187-196.
AC4Maguin, E. & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and delinquency. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and Justice (Vol. 20, pp. 145-264). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
AC5Maguin, E. & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and its relationship to delinquency. In S. C. Cramer & W. Ellis (Eds.), Learning Disabilities: Lifelong Issues (pp. 235-240). Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brooks.
AC6Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1996). How well do ratings of academic performance by mothers and their sons correspond to grades, achievement test scores, and teachers' ratings? Journal of Behavioral Education, 6, 405-425.
AC7Maughan, B., Rowe, R., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2003). Reading problems and depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 219-229. fulltext
Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy
APD1Loeber, R., Burke, J.D., & Lahey, B.B. (2002). What are adolescent antecedents to Antisocial Personality Disorder? Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 24-36. fulltext
APD2Loeber, R., Green, S. M., & Lahey, B. B. Risk factors of antisocial personality in adulthood. In J. Coid & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Early Prevention of Adult Antisocial Behaviour. (pp.79-108). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
APD3Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Burke, J.D., & Applegate, B. (2005.) Predicting future antisocial personality disorder in males from a clinical assessment in childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. fulltext
Anxiety, Depression, & Internalization Problems
AX1Pruis, A., Lahey, B.B., Thyer, B.A., Christ, M.A.G., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1990). Separation anxiety disorder and overanxious disorder: How do they differ? Phobia Practice and Research Journal, 3, 51-59.
AX2Walker, J.L., Lahey, B.B., Russo, M.F., Frick, P.J., Christ, M.A., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Green, S. (1991). Anxiety, inhibition, and conduct disorder in children: I. Relations to social impairment and sensation seeking. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 187-191. fulltext
AX3Loeber, R., Russo, M. F., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Lahey, B. B. (1994). Internalizing problems and their relation to the development of disruptive behaviors in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 615-637. Reprinted in G. A. Adams (Ed.) (2000), Adolescent development. The essential readings (275-298). Oxford: Blackwell. fulltext
AX4Angold, A., Erklani, A., Loeber, R., Costello, E. J., Van Kammen, W., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Disappearing depression in a population sample of boys. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 95-104. fulltext
Biological Factors
BF1McBurnett, K., Lahey, B.B., Frick, P.J., Risch, C., Loeber, R., Hart, E.L., Christ, M.A.G., & Hanson, K.S. (1991). Anxiety, inhibition, and conduct disorder in children: II. Relation to salivary cortisol. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 197-201. fulltext
BF2Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., & Hart, E. L. (1995). Psychobiology of conduct disorder. In G. P. Sholevar (Ed.), Conduct disorders in children and adolescents: Assessments and interventions (pp. 27-44). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press. fulltext
BF3Hart, E. L., Lahey, B. B., Hynd, G. W., Loeber, R., & McBurnett, K. (1995). Association of chronic overanxious disorder with atopic rhinitis in boys: A four-year longitudinal study. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24, 332-337.
BF4Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Hewitt, J., Silberg, J., Rutter, M., Loeber, R., Meyer, J., Neale, M., and Eaves, L. (1995). Multiple raters of disruptive child behavior: Using a genetic strategy to examine shared views and bias. Behavioral Genetics, 25, 311-326.
BF5Silberg, J., Rutter, M., Meyer, J., Simonoff, E., Hewitt, J., Loeber, R., Pickles, A., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (1996). Comorbidity among symptoms of hyperactivity and conduct problems in male and female juvenile twins. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 803-816.
BF6McBurnett, K., Lahey, B. B., Capasso, L. & Loeber, R. (1996). Aggressive symptoms and salivary cortisol in clinic-referred boys with conduct disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 169-179. fulltext
BF7Silberg, J., Meyer, J., Rutter, M., Simonoff, E., Hewitt, J., Loeber, R., Pickles, A., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. (1996). Genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 803-816. fulltext
BF8Wakschlag, L.S., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Green, S.M., Gordon, R.A., & Leventhal, B.L. (1997). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of conduct disorder in boys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 670-676.
BF9Eaves, L., Silberg, J. L., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H. H., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Rutter, M., Neale, M. C., Reynolds, C. A., Erikson, M. T., Heath, A. C., Loeber, R., Truett, K. R., & Hewitt, J. K. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 2. The main effects of genes and environment on behavioral problems in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 38, 965-980. fulltext
BF10Hewitt, J. K., Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., Simonoff, E., Meyer, J. M., Maes, H., Pickles, A., Neale, M. C., Loeber, R., Erickson, M. T., Kendler, K. S., Heath, A. C., Truett, K. R., Reynolds, C. A., & Eaves, L. J. (1997). Genetics and developmental psychopathology: 1. Phenotypic assessment in The Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 943-963. fulltext
BF11Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Meyer, J. M., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., Loeber, R., Rutter, M., Hewitt, J. K., & Eaves, L. J. (1997). The Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development: Influences of age, gender, and impairment on rates of disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 801-808.
BF12McBurnett, K., Pfiffner, L.J., Capasso, L., Lahey, B.B., and Loeber, R. (1997). Children's aggression and DSM-II-R symptoms predicted by parent psychopathy, parenting practices, cortisol, and SES. In A. Raine, P. A. Brennan, D. P. Farrington, & S. A. Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 345-348). New York: Plenum.
BF13McBurnett, K., Lahey, B. B., Rathouz, P. J., & Loeber, R. (2000). Low salivary cortisol and persistent aggression in boys referred for disruptive behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 38-43 fulltext
BF14Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Raine, A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Steinhauer, S. (2002). Serious delinquent behavior, sensation-seeking and electrodermal arousal. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 477-486. fulltext
BF15Wakschlag, L.S., Pickett, K.E., & Loeber, R. (in press). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with a developmental pattern of conduct problems in young boys? American Journal of Psychiatry.
BF16Raine, A., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Lyman, D. (2005.) Neurocognitive impairments in boys on the life-course persistent antisocial path. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 38-49. fulltext
BF17McBurnett, K., Lahey, B.B., Raine, A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Kumar, A., Kumar, M., Moffitt, T., & Caspi, A. (2005.) Mood and hormone responses to psychological challenge in adolescent males with conduct problems. Biological Psychiatry. fulltext
BF18Fung, M.T., Raine, A., Loeber, R., Lynam, D.R., Steinhauer, S.R., Venables, P.H., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2005.) Reduced electrodermal activity in psychopathy-prone adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. fulltext
Child Abuse
CA1Reid, J. B., Patterson, G. R., & Loeber, R. (1982). The abused child: Victim, instigator, or innocent bystander? In D. J. Bernstein & H. E. Howe (Eds.), Proceedings of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Response structure and organization. University of Nebraska Press.
CA2Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Homish, D. L., & Wei, E.H. (2001). Maltreatment of boys and the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 941-955.
CA3Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Wei, E.H., Homish, D. L., & Loeber, R. (2002). Which family and demographic factors are related to both maltreatment and persistent serious delinquency? Children Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice, 5, 261-272. fulltext
Child Delinquency
CD1Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (2000). Young children who commit crime: epidemiology, developmental origins, risk factors, early interventions, and policy implications. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 737-762.
CD2Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2003). Child delinquency: Early intervention and prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. Washington DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. fulltext
CD3Snyder, H. N., Espiritu, R. C., Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., & Petechuk, D. (2003). Epidemiology and development of child delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. Washington DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Program. fulltext
CD4Wasserman, G.A., Keenan, K., Tremblay, R.E., Coie, J., Herrenkohl, T.I., Loeber, R., & Petechuk, D. (2003). Risk and protective factors of childhood delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. Washington DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. fulltext
CD5Burns, B. J., Howell, J. C., Wiig, J. K., Augimeri, L. K., Welsh, B. C., Loeber, R., & Petechuk, D. (2003). Child delinquency intervention and services. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. Washington DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. fulltext
Correlates of Disruptive Child Behavior and Juvenile Delinquency
CO1Loeber, R., Brinthaupt, V. P., & Green, S. M. (1990). Attention deficits, impulsivity and hyperactivity with or without conduct problems: Relationship to delinquency and unique contextual factors. In R. J. McMahon & R. D. Peters (Eds.), Behavior Disorders of Adolescence: Research, Intervention, and Policy in Clinical and School Settings (pp. 39-61). New York: Plenum.
CO2White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Bartusch, D. J., Needles, D. J., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1994). Measuring impulsivity and examining its relationship to delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 192-205.
CO3Keltner, D., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1995). Facial expression of emotion and psychopathology in adolescent boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 644-652.
CO4Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., Yin, Y., & Anderson, S. (2002). Are within-individual causes of delinquency the same as between-individual causes? Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 53-68. fulltext
CO5Pardini, D., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2005). Developmental shifts in parent and peer influences on boys' beliefs about delinquent behaviour. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15, 299-323. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Comorbidities
COM1Loeber, R. & Keenan, K. (1994). The interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 497-523. fulltext
COM2Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., and Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Multiple risk factors for multi-problem boys: Co-occurrence of delinquency, substance use, attention deficit, conduct problems, physical aggression, covert behavior, depressed mood, and shy/withdrawn behavior. In R. Jessor (Ed.). New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior (pp. 90-149). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
COM3Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., Thornberry, T. P., & Cothern, L. (Nov. 2000). Co-occurrence of serious and violent juvenile offending and other problem behaviors. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. fulltext
COM4Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Burke, J. D., Rathouz, P. J., & McBurnett, K. (2002). Waxing and waning in concert: Dynamic comorbidity of conduct disorder with other disruptive and emotional problems over seven years among clinic-referred boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 556-567. fulltext
COM5Loeber, R., Delinquency prevention in a mental health context. Utrecht, Netherlands: Trimbos Institute, (2004.) fulltext
COM6Burke, J.D., Loeber, R., Lahey, B.B., & Rathouz, P.J. ( 2005.) Developmental transitions among affective and behavioral disorders in adolescent boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1200-1210. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. fulltext
Development of Disruptive Child Behavior/Attention Problems/Hyperactivity and Delinquency
DE1Loeber, R. (1985). Patterns and development of antisocial child behavior. In G. J. Whitehurst (Ed.), Annals of Child Development (Vol. 2, pp. 77-116). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. fulltext
DE2Loeber, R. (1987). The prevalence, correlates, and continuity of serious conduct problems in elementary school children. Criminology, 25, 615-642. fulltext
DE3Loeber, R. (1988). Behavioral precursors and accelerators of delinquency. In W. Buikhuisen & S. A. Mednick (Eds.), Explaining Delinquency (pp. 51-67). Leiden, Holland: Brill. fulltext
DE4Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1990). Long-term criminal outcomes of hyperactivity impulsivity-attention deficit and conduct problems in childhood. In L. Robins & M. Rutter (Eds.), Straight and Devious Pathways from Childhood to Adulthood (pp. 62-81). New York: Cambridge University Press.
DE5Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., Elliott, D. S., Hawkins, J. D., Kandel, D. B., Klein, M. W., McCord, J., Rowe, D. C., & Tremblay, R. E. (1990). Advancing knowledge about the onset of delinquency and crime. In B. B. Lahey and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.) Advances in Clinical Child Psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 283-342). New York: Plenum.
DE6Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1-41. fulltext
DE7Loeber, R., & Le Blanc, M. (1990). Toward a developmental criminology. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice (Vol. 12, pp. 375-473). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
DE8Loeber, R., & Snyder, H. N. (1990). Rate of offending in juvenile careers: Findings of constancy and change in lambda. Criminology, 28, 97-109. fulltext
DE9Loeber, R. (1991). Antisocial behavior: More enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 393-397. fulltext
DE10Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Green, S. M. (1991). Age at onset of problem behavior in boys, and later disruptive and delinquent behavior. Criminal Behavior & Mental Health, 1, 229-246. fulltext
DE11Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Farrington, D. P. (1991). Initiation, escalation, and desistance in juvenile offending and their correlates. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 36-82. To be republished in S. Farrall (Ed.), The termination of criminal careers. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. fulltext
DE12Loeber, R. (1992). Viewing emotional problems of children and adolescents from a developmental perspective. In 5th Annual Research Conference Proceedings on A System of Care for Children's Mental Health: Expanding the Research Base, Published by Research & Training Center for Children's Mental Health, Florida Mental Health Institute, Univ. of S. Florida, 53-60. fulltext
DE13Loeber, R., Green, S.M., Lahey, B.B., Christ, M.A.G., & Frick, P.J. (1992). Developmental sequences in the age of onset of disruptive child behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1, 21-41.
DE14Le Blanc, M. & Loeber, R. (1993). Precursors, causes, and the development of criminal offending. In D. F. Hay and A. Angold (Eds.) Precursors and Causes in Development and Psychopathology (pp. 233-263). Chichester: John Wiley & Son, 1993. fulltext
DE15Huizinga, D., Loeber, R. & Thornberry, T. P. (1993). Longitudinal study of delinquency, drug use, sexual activity, and pregnancy among children and youth in three cities. Public Health Reports: Journal of the U.S. Public Health Service, 108, Supplement 1. (pp. 90-96). fulltext
DE16Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1994). Problems and solutions in longitudinal and experimental treatment studies of child psychopathology and delinquency. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 887-900. Republished as: Longitudinal approaches in epidemiological research on conduct problems. In F. C. Verhulst, & H. M. Koot (Eds.), The Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology (pp. 309-336). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Another version: Strategies and yields of longitudinal studies on antisocial behavior, in D. M. Stoff, J. Breiling, & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 125-139). New York: Wiley, 1997.
DE17Lahey, B. B., & Loeber, R. (1994). Framework for a developmental model of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder. In K. D. Routh (Ed.), Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Childhood: Essays honoring Herbert C. Quay (pp. 139-180). New York: Plenum.
DE18Loeber, R. & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). The development of offending. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 12-24. fulltext
DE19Loeber, R. (1996). Developmental continuity, specialization, and generalization in male juvenile problem behaviors and delinquency. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 1-27). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DE20Zhang, Q., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1997). Developmental trends of delinquency attitudes and delinquency: Replication and synthesis across time and samples. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 13, 181-216.
DE21Farrington, D. P. & Loeber, R. (1999). Transatlantic replicability of risk factors in the development of delinquency. In P. Cohen, C. Slomkowski, & L. N. Robins (Eds.) Historical and geographical influences on psychopathology (pp. 299-329). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
DE22Le Blanc, M. & Loeber, R. (1998). Developmental criminology updated. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and Justice (Vol. 23, pp. 115-197). Chicago: Chicago University Press.
DE23Lynam, D.R. (1997). Pursuing the psychopath: Capturing the fledgling psychopath in a nomological net. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106. 425-438.
DE24Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., & Loeber, R. (2000). Are Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder developmental precursors to Conduct Disorder? In A. Sameroff, M. Lewis and S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 431-446). New York: Plenum.
DE25Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Quay, H.C., Applegate, B., Shaffer, D., Waldman, I., Hart, E.L., McBurnett, K., Frick, P.J., Jensen, P.S., Dulcan, M.K., Canino, G., & Bird, H.R. (1998). Validity of DSM-IV subtypes of conduct disorder based on age of onset. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 435-442. fulltext
DE26Loeber, R. & Coie, J. (2001). Continuities and discontinuities of development, with particular emphasis on emotional and cognitive aspects of disruptive behavior. In J. Hill & B. Maughan (Eds.), Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (pp. 379-407). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DE27Tolan, P. H., & Loeber, R. (1993). Antisocial behavior. In P. Tolan & V. Cohler (Eds.), Handbook of clinical research and practice with adolescents (pp. 307-331). New York: Wiley. fulltext
DE28Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (1999). Risk factors for delinquency over time and place. Youth Update, 17(2), 4-5.
DE29Smith, C.A., Krohn, M.D., Lizotte, A.J., McCluskey, C.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Weiher, A. (2000). The effect of early delinquency and substance use on precocious transitions to adulthood among adolescent males. In G. L. Fox & M. L. Benson (Eds.), Families, Crime and Criminal Justice (pp. 233-253). Amsterdam: JAI Press. fulltext
DE30Loeber, R. (2001), Interventies bij delinquente jongeren. In H. van Leeuwen, W. Slot, & M. Uijterwijk, Antisociaal gedrag bij jeugdigen: Determinanten en interventies (pp. 13-21). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
DE31Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., & Lahey, B. B. (2003). Course and outcome of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder. In C. Essau (Ed.), Conduct and Oppositional Defiant Disorders: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Treatment. (pp. 61-96). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
DE32Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Burke, J., & Rathouz, P. J. (2002). Adolescent outcomes of childhood conduct disorder among boys: predictors of improvement. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 333-349. fulltext
DE33Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., Dodge, K., Fergusson, D., Horwood, J., Loeber, R., Laird, R., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T., Petitt, G. S., & Vitaro, F. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six site, cross-national replication. Development and Psychopathology.
DE34Kalb, L., & Loeber, R. (2003). Child disobedience and noncompliance: a review. Pediatrics, 111, 641-652. fulltext
DE35Farrington, D.P., & Loeber, R. (2003). Foreword. In B.B. Lahey, T.E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), The causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (p. ix - x). New York: Guilford Press. fulltext
DE36Pardini, D., Obradovic, J., & Loeber, R. (2006). Interpersonal callousness, hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems as precursors to delinquency persistence in boys: A comparison of three grade-based cohorts. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 46-59. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Desistance
DES1Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Wei, E., Loeber, R., & Masten, A.F. (2004). Desistance from persistent serious delinquency in the transistion to adulthood. Developmental and Psychopathology, 16, 897-918.
Diagnosis
DI1Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Christ, M.A.G., Green, S., Russo, M.F., Frick, P. J., & Dulcan, M. (1990). Comparison of DSM-III and DSM-III-R diagnoses for prepubertal children: Changes in prevalence and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 620-626. fulltext
DI2Loeber, R., Lahey, B. B., & Thomas, C. (1991). The diagnostic conundrum of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 379-390.
DI3Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Quay, H. C., Frick, P. J., & Grimm, J. (1992). Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: Issues to be resolved for DSM-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 539-546. fulltext
DI4Loeber, R., Keenan, K., Lahey, B. B., Green, S. M., & Thomas, C. (1993). Evidence for developmentally based diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 377-410.
DI5Russo, M., Loeber, R., & Lahey, B. B. & Keenan, K. (1994). Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: Validation of the DSM-III-R and an alternative option. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 56-68.
DI6Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Hart, E.L., Frick, P.J., Applegate, B., Zhang, Q., Green, S.M. & Russo, M. F. (1995). Four Year Longitudinal Study of conduct disorder in boys: Patterns and predictors of persistence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 83-93.
DI7Hart, E.L., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Applegate, B., & Frick, P.J. (1995). Developmental change in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in boys: A four-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 729-749.
DI8Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Keenan, K., & Lahey, B. B. (1995) Which boys will fare worse? Early predictors of the onset of conduct disorder in a six-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 499-509. fulltext
DI9Loeber, R., Keenan, K., Russo, M. F., Green, S. M. & Lahey, B. B. & Thomas, C. (1998). Secondary data analyses for DSM-IV on the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In T. Widiger, A. Frances, H. A. Pincus, R. Ross, M. B. First, W. Davis, & M. Kline (Eds.), DSM-IV Sourcebook (Vol. 4, pp. 465-490). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. fulltext
DI10Lahey, B. B., & Loeber, R. (1997). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Adult Antisocial Behavior: A life span perspective. In D. Stoff, J. Breiling, & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 51-59). New York: Wiley. fulltext
DI11Loeber, R., Burke, J. D., Lahey, B. B., Winters, A., & Zera, M. (2000). Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: A review of the past 10 years, Part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1468-1484. fulltext
DI12Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., & Birmaher, B. (2002). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A review of the past 10 years, Part II. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1275 - 1293. fulltext
Develomental Pathways
DP1Loeber, R. (1988). Natural histories of conduct problems, delinquency, and associated substance use: Evidence for developmental progressions. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in Clinical Child Psychology. (Vol. 11, pp. 73-124) New York: Plenum.
DP2Le Blanc, M. Côté, G., & Loeber, R. (1991). Temporal paths in delinquency: Stability, regression, and progression analyzed with panel data from an adolescent and a delinquent male sample. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 23-44. fulltext
DP3Loeber, R. (1991). Questions and advances in the study of developmental pathways. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.). Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: III (pp. 97-115). Rochester, NY: Rochester University Press. fulltext
DP4Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W.B., & Maughan, B. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 101-132.
DP5Keenan, K., Loeber, R., Zhang, Q., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. & Van Kammen, W. B. (1995). The influence of deviant peers on the development of boys' disruptive and delinquency behavior: A temporal analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 715-726.
DP6Loeber, R. & Keenan, K. (1995). Developmental pathways in boys' disruptive and delinquent behavior. Youth Update, 13, 4-5.
DP7Loeber, R., DeLamatre, M., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1998). A prospective replication of developmental pathways in disruptive and delinquent behavior. In R. Cairns, L. Bergman, & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for studying the individual (pp. 185-215). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. fulltext
DP8Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1997). Boys' experimentation and persistence in developmental pathways toward serious delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 321-357.
DP9Kelley, B. T., Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & DeLamatre, M. (1997). Developmental pathways in disruptive and delinquent behavior. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. fulltext
DP10Loeber, R., Wei, E., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Huizinga, D., & Thornberry, T. P. (1999). Behavioral antecedents to serious and violent juvenile offending: Joint analyses from the Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study, and the Rochester Youth Development Study. Studies in Crime and Crime Prevention, 8, 245-263. fulltext
DP11Tolan, P. H., Gorman-Smith, D., & Loeber, R. (2000). Developmental timing of onsets of disruptive behaviors and later delinquency of inner-city youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 203-230 fulltext
Fatherhood and Sexual Behavior
FA1Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Wei, E. (1998). The precursors of young fatherhood and its effect on the delinquency career of teenage males. Journal of Adolescent Health, 22, 56-65. fulltext
FA2Thornberry, T. P., Wei, E. H., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Dyke, J. (Jan. 2000). Teenage fatherhood and delinquent behavior, OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. fulltext
FA3Wei, E. H., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2002). How many of the offspring born to teenage fathers are produced by repeat serious delinquents? Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 83-98. fulltext
Family Factors
FF1Loeber, R., Weismann, W., & Reid, J. B. (1983). Family interactions of assaultive adolescents, stealers, and nondelinquents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 1-14.
FF2Patterson, G. R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1984). The correlation of family management practices and delinquency. Child Development, 55, 1299-1307. fulltext
FF3Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1986). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In N. Morris & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research (Vol. 7, pp. 29-149). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
FF4Loeber, R. (1987). What policy makers and practitioners can learn from family studies of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In J. Q. Wilson & G. C. Loury (Eds.), From Children to Citizens: Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention, pp. 87-111. New York: Springer-Verlag.
FF5Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (1988). Parents as intervention agents for conduct problem children and juvenile offenders. Journal of Child and Youth Services, 11, 127-148. fulltext
FF6Christ, M. A. G., Lahey, B. B., Frick, P. J., Russo, M. F., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Green, S. M. (1990). Serious conduct problems in the children of adolescent mothers: Disentangling confounded correlations. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 58, 840-844.
FF7Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Christ, M. A., Loeber, R., & Green, S. M. (1991). History of childhood behavior problems in biological relatives of boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 445-451.
FF8Frick, P.J., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Christ, M.A.G., Hanson, K. (1992). Familial risk factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental psychopathology and maternal parenting. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 49-55.
FF9Green, S. M., Loeber, R., & Lahey, B. B. (1992). Child psychopathology and deviant family hierarchies. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1, 341-349.
FF10Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., Loeber, R., & Henry, D. (1998), The relation of family problems to patterns of delinquency involvement among urban youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 319-333. fulltext
FF11Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Drinkwater, M., & Loeber, R. (1999-2000). Family functioning profiles, early onset offending, and disadvantaged neighborhoods. International Journal of Child and Family Welfare, 4, 247-256. fulltext
FF12Thornberry, T. P., Smith, C. A., Rivera, C., Huizinga, D., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (Sept., 1999). Family disruption and delinquency. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. fulltext
FF13Wakschlag, L.S., Gordon, R.A., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Green, S.M., & Leventhal, B.N. (2000). Maternal age at first birth and boys’ risk for Conduct Disorder. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 417-441. fulltext
FF14Loeber, R., Drinkwater, M., Yin, Y., Anderson, S. J., Schmidt, L. C., & Crawford, A. (2000). Stability of family interactions from ages 6 to 18. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 353-369. fulltext
FF15Pfiffner, L. J., McBurnett, K., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Green, S., Frick, P. J., & Rathouz, P. J. (1999). Association of parental psychopathology to the comorbid disorders of boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 881-893. fulltext
FF16Farrington, D. P., Jolliffe, D., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Kalb, L. (2001). The concentration of offenders in families, and family criminality in the prediction of boys’ delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 579-596. fulltext
FF17Hoeve, M., Smeenk, W., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., van der Laan, P., Gerris, J., & Dubas, J.S. (2004) Opvoeding en delinquent gedrag bij volwassenen mannen [Child rearing and delinquency by adult men]. Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, 46, 347-360. fulltext
Gangs
GA1Lahey, B. B., Gordon, R. A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Boys who join gangs: A prospective study of predictors of gang entry. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 261-276. fulltext
GA2Gordon, R.A., Lahey, B.B., Kawai, E., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D.P. (2004). Antisocial behavior and youth gang membership: Selection and socialization. Criminology, 42, 55-87. fulltext
Girls
GI1Green, S. M., Russo, M. F., Navratil, J. L., & Loeber, R. (1999). Sexual and physical abuse among adolescent girls with disruptive behavior problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 8, 151-168. fulltext
GI2Keenan, K., Loeber, R., & Green, S. M. (1999). Conduct disorder in girls: A review of the literature. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 3-19. Republished in Literatuurselectie Kinderen en Adolescenten (Netherlands, 2001), 8, 257-287. fulltext
GI3Tiet, Q. Q., Wasserman, G. A., Loeber, R., McReynolds, L. S., & Miller, L. (2001). Developmental and sex differences in types of conduct problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 181-197. fulltext
GI4Keenan, K., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (2003). Developmental approaches to studying conduct problems in girls. In D. Pepler, C. Webster, & K. Levene (Eds.), Development and treatment of girlhood aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
GI5Hipwell, A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Keenan, K., White, H. R., & Kroneman, L. (2002). Characteristics of girls with early onset disruptive and antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 99-118. fulltext
GI6Kroneman, L., Loeber, R. & Hipwell, A. (2004.) Is neighborhood context differently related to externalizing problems and delinquency for girls compared to boys? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. fulltext
GI7Pajer, K., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Gardner, W., & Loeber, R. (in press). Antisocial women: Help-seeking for emotional problems and long-term health. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health.
GI8Keenan, K., Hipwell, A.E., Duax, J., Stouthamer-Loeber, M, & Loeber, R. (2004.) Phenomenology of depression in young girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. fulltext
GI9Gorman-Smith, D. & Loeber, R. (2005.) Are developmental pathways in disruptive behaviors the same for girls and boys? Journal of Child and Family Studies. fulltext
Homicide
H1Loeber, R., Homish, D.L., Wei, E.H., Pardini, D., Crawford, A.M., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Creemers, J., Koehler, S.A., & Rosenfeld, R. (2005.) The prediction of violence and homicide in young males. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. fulltext
H2Loeber, R., Lacourse, E., & Homish, D.L. (2005). Homicide, violence and developmental trajectories. In R.E. Tremblay, W.W. Hartup, & J. Archer (Eds.), Developmental origins of aggression, (pp. 202-220). New York: Guilford. fulltext
Lying
L1Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1986). Lying as a problem behavior: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 267-289. fulltext
L2Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (1986). Boys who lie. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 551-564.
L3Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Young children's verbal misrepresentation of reality. In K. J. Rotenberg (Ed.), Children's interpersonal trust: Sensitivity to lying, deception, and promise violation. (pp.20-42). New York: Springer.
Measurement
M1Loeber, R., & Van Allen, R. (1972). Work assessment of psychiatric patients: A critical review of published scales. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4, 101-107. fulltext
M2Loeber, R., & Waller, D. (1988). Artifacts in delinquency specialization and generalization studies. The British Journal of Criminology, 28, 462-478.
M3Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1989). Optimal informants on childhood disruptive behaviors. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 317-337.
M4Loeber, R., & Lahey, B. B. (1989). Recommendations for research on disruptive behavior disorders of childhood and adolescence. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in Clinical Child Psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 221-251). New York: Plenum.
M5Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Farrington, D. P. (1989). Development of a new measure of self-reported antisocial behavior for young children: Prevalence and reliability. In M. Klein (Ed.), Cross-national research in self-reported crime and delinquency (pp. 203-225). Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff.
M6Loeber, R., Green, S. M., & Lahey, B. B. (1990). Mental health professionals' perception of the utility of children, mothers, and teachers as informants on childhood psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 136-143.
M7Costello, E. J., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. & Loeber, R. (1991). Pervasive and situational hyperactivity - Confounding effect of informant. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 367-376. fulltext
M8Green, S. M., Loeber, R., & Lahey, B. B. (1991). Stability of mothers' recall of the age at onset of their child's attention and hyperactivity problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 135-137. fulltext
M9Loeber, R., Green, S., Lahey, B.B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Differences and similarities between children, mothers, and teachers as informants on disruptive child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 75-95.
M10Russo, M.F., Lahey, B.B., Christ, M.A.G., Frick, P.J., McBurnett, K., Walker, P.J., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Green, S. (1991). Preliminary development of a sensation seeking scale for children. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 399-405. fulltext
M11Lizotte, A. J., Chard-Wierschem, D. J., Loeber, R., & Stern, S. B. (1992). A shortened Child Behavior Checklist for delinquency studies. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 8, 233-245.
M12Russo, M. F., Stokes, G. S., Lahey, B. B., Christ, M. A. G., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Green, S. M. (1993). A Sensation Seeking Scale for Children: Further refinement and psychometric development. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15, 69-86.
M13Hart, E. L., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., & Hanson, K. S. (1994). Criterion validity of informants in the diagnosis of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in children: A preliminary study. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 62, 410-414.
M14Farrington, D.P., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W.B., & Schmidt, L. (1996). Self-reported delinquency and a combined delinquency seriousness scale based on boys, mothers, and teachers: Concurrent and predictive validity for African-Americans and Caucasians. Criminology, 34, 493-517. fulltext
M15Messer, S. C., Angold, A., Loeber, R., Costello, E. J., Van Kammen, W. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1995). The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents: Factor composition and structure across development. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5, 251-262. fulltext
M16Jacob, T., Moser, R. P., Windle, M., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2000). A new measure of parenting practices involving preadolescent and adolescent age children. Behavior Modification, 24, 611-634. fulltext
M17Youngstrom, E., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2000). Patterns and correlates of agreement between parent, teacher, and male adolescent ratings of externalizing and internalizing problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1038-1050. fulltext
M18Farrington, D.P., Jolliffe, D., Loeber, R., & Homish, D.L. (in press). How many offenses are really committed per juvenile court offender? OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin.
Neighborhood Factors
NF1Loeber, R. & Wikström, P-O. (1993). Individual pathways to crime in different types of neighborhood. In D. P. Farrington, R. J. Sampson, and P-O. Wikström (Eds.), Integrating Individual and Ecological Aspects of Crime (pp. 169-204). Stockholm, Sweden: National Council for Crime Prevention.
NF2Peeples, F. & Loeber, R. (1994). Do individual factors and neighborhood context explain ethnic differences in juvenile delinquency? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 10, 141-157.
NF3Wikström, P-O. (1998). Communities and crime. In M. Tonry (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of crime and punishment (pp. 269-301). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
NF4Wikström, P-O., & Loeber, R. (2000). Do disadvantaged neighborhoods cause well-adjusted children to become adolescent delinquents? A study of male juvenile serious offending, risk and protective factors, and neighborhood context. Criminology, 38, 1109-1142. fulltext
NF5Lynam, D. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., Wikström, P-O., Loeber, R., & Novak, S. (2000). The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: The effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 563-574. fulltext
NF6Beyers, J. M., Loeber, R., Wikström, P-O.H., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2001). What predicts adolescent violence in better-off neighborhoods? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29. 369-381. fulltext
NF7Ireland, T.O., Thornberry, T.P., & Loeber, R. (in press). Residential stability among adolescents in public housing: A risk factor for delinquent and violent behavior? In J. Flint (Ed.), Anti-social behaviour in housing: Theory, policy, and practice. Bristol: The Policy Press.
NF8Wei, E., Hipwell, A., Pardini, D., Beyers, J.M., & Loeber, R. (2005). Block observations of neighbourhood physical disorder are associated with neighborhood crime, firearm injuries and death, and teen births. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 904-908. London, BMJ Publishing Group.
Prediction
P1Loeber, R. (1982). The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior. Child Development, 53, 1431-1446. fulltext
P2Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1983). Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 68-99.
P3Loeber, R., Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1984). Multiple gating: A multistage assessment procedure of identifying youths at risk for delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, 7-32. fulltext
P4Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1987). Antisocial and delinquent youths: Methods for their early identification. In J. Burchard & S. Burchard (Eds.), Prevention of Delinquent Behavior. (pp. 75-89). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. fulltext
P5Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1987). Prediction. In H. C. Quay (Ed.), Handbook of Juvenile Delinquency. (pp. 325-382). New York: Wiley. fulltext
P6Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (1988). The use of prediction data in understanding delinquency. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6, 333-354. fulltext
P7Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., Mutchka, J. S., & Lahey, B. B. (2002). A question for DSM-V: What predicts persistent conduct disorder: delinquent acts or conduct disorder? Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 37-52. fulltext
Personality
PER1Caspi, A., Block, J., Block, J. H., Klopp, B., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1992). A "Common-Language" version of the California Q-Set for personality assessment. Psychology Assessment, 4, 512-523.
PER2Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R. F., & Schmutte, P.S. (1994). Are some people crime-prone? Replications of the personality-crime relationship across countries, genders, races, and methods. Criminology, 32, 163-195. fulltext
PER3John, O. P., Caspi, A., Robins, R. W., Moffitt, T. E. & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1994). The "Little Five": Exploring the five-factor model of personality in adolescent boys. Child Development, 65, 160-178. fulltext
PER4Robins, R. W., John, O.P. & Caspi, A. (1994). The Big Five and Beyond. In C. F. Halverson, G. A. Kohnstamm, & R. P. Martin (Eds.), The developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood (pp. 267-291). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
PER5Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Silva, P. A., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1995). Individual differences in personality and intelligence are linked to crime: Cross-context evidence from nations, neighborhoods, genders, races, and age-cohorts. In J. Hagan (Ed.), Current perspectives on aging and the life cycle (Vol. 4): Delinquency and disrepute in the life course (pp. 1-34). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. fulltext
PER6Krueger, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., White, J. & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Delay of gratification, psychopathology, and personality: Is low self-control specific to externalizing problems? Journal of Personality, 64, 107-129. Malden, MA: Blackwell. fulltext
PER7Robins, R. W., John, O. P., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: Three replicable personality types. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 157-171.
Protective Factors
PF1Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Zhang, Q., Van Kammen, W.B., & Maguin, E. (1993). The double edge of protective and risk factors for delinquency: Interrelations and developmental patterns. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 683-701.
PF2Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Wei, E., Farrington, D. P., & Wikström, P-O. H. (2002). Risk and promotive effects in the explanation of persistent serious delinquency in boys. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 70, 111-123. fulltext
Prosocial Skills
PS1Dishion, T. J., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Patterson, G. R. (1984). Skill deficits and male adolescent delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 37-54.
PS2Walker, J. L., Lahey, B. B., Russo, M. F., Frick, P. J., Christ, M. A. G., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. & Green, S. M. (1991). Anxiety, inhibition, and conduct disorder in children: I. Relations to social impairment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 187-191. fulltext
Psychopathology
PSY1Fabrega, H., Ulrick, R., & Loeber, R. (1996). Adolescent psychopathology as a function of informant and risk status. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 27-34. fulltext
Race
R1Farrington, D.P., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2003). How can the relationship between race and violence be explained? In D.F. Hawkins (Ed.), Violent crime: Assessing race and ethnic differences (pp. 213-237). New York: Cambridge University Press.
R2Loeber, R., & Farrington, D.P. (2004). Verschillende oorzaken van delinquentie tussen etnische en national groepen? Longitudinale analyses van criminaliteit onder jonge mannen in Pittsburgh and London [Are between-race and between-country causes of delinquency the same? Longitudinal analyses of young males in Pittsburgh and London]. Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, 46, 330-346. fulltext
Research Implementation
RI1Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Loeber, R. (1992). The nuts and bolts of implementing large-scale longitudinal studies. Violence and Victims, 7, 63-78.
RI2Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1993). Optimizing data quality of individual and community sources in longitudinal research. In D. P. Farrington, R. J. Sampson, & P-O. Wikström (Eds.), Integrating Individual and Ecological Aspects of Crime. (pp. 259-277). Stockholm, Sweden: National Council for Crime Prevention.
RI3Navratil, J.L., Green, S.M., Loeber, R., & Lahey, B.B. (1994). Minimizing subject loss in a longitudinal study of deviant behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 3, 89-106.
RI4Green, S. M., Navratil, J. L., Loeber, R., & Lahey, B. B. (1994). Potential dropouts in a longitudinal study: Prevalence, stability and associated characteristics. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 3 69-88.
RI5Van Kammen, W. B., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1997). Practical aspects of interview data collection and data management. In L. Bickman & D. Rog (Eds.), Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods (pp. 375-398). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. fulltext
RI6Cotter, R. B., Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., & Navratil, J. L. (2002). Innovative retention methods in longitudinal research: A case study of the Development Trends Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11, 485-498. fulltext
RI7Cotter, R.B., Burke, J.D., Loeber, R., & Mutchka, J.S. (2005.) Predictors of contact difficulty and drop out in a longitudinal study. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. London, Whurr Publishers Limited. fulltext
RI8Cotter, R.B., Burke, J.D., Stouthamer-Lober, M., & Loeber, R. (2005). Contacting participants for follow-up: how much effort is required to retain participants in longitudinal studies? Evaluation and Program Planning. fulltext
Service Delivery
SD1Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., & Thomas, C. (1992). Caretakers seeking help for boys with disruptive delinquent behavior. Comprehensive Mental Health Care, 2, 159-178.
SD2Stouthamer-Loeber, M, Loeber, R., Van Kammen, W. B., & Zhang, Q. (1995). Uninterrupted delinquent careers: The timing of parental helpseeking and juvenile court contact. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 4, 236-251. fulltext
SD3Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Loeber, R. (2002). Lost opportunities for intervention: Undetected markers for the development of serious juvenile delinquency. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, 69-82. fulltext
Secular Changes
SEC1Bruinsma, G., & Loeber, R. (2004). Challenges for criminological and criminal justice research. In G. Bruinsma, H. Elffers, & J. de Keijser (Eds.), Punishment, place and perpetrators (pp. 3-20). Devon: Willan. fulltext
Statistics
ST1Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (1989). RIOC & Phi as measures of predictive efficiency and strength of association in 2 X 2 tables. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 5, 201-213.
ST2Copas, J.B., & Loeber, R. (1990). Relative Improvement Over Chance (RIOC) for 2 X 2 tables. British Journal of Statistical and Mathematical Psychology, 43, 293-307. fulltext
ST3Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2000). Some benefits of dichotomization in psychiatric and criminological research. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 10, 102-122. fulltext
Structure of Disruptive Child Behavior
STR1Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Peters, R.D. (1984). A priori classification systems of observation data: The eye of the beholder. Behavioral Assessment, 6, 275-282. fulltext
STR2Loeber, R., & Schmaling, K. (1985). Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 337-352.
STR3Loeber, R., & Schmaling, K. (1985). The utility of differentiating between mixed and pure forms of antisocial child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 315-336.
STR4Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Green, S., Hart, E. L., & Christ, M. A. G. (1991). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in boys: Patterns of behavioral covariation. Journal of Child Psychology, 20, 202-208.
STR5Frick, P.J., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Tannenbaum, L., Van Horn, Y., Christ, M.A.G., Hart, E. A. & Hanson, K. (1993). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A meta-analytic review of factor analyses and cross-validation in a clinic sample. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 319-340. fulltext
STR6Bird, H.R., Davis, M., Canino, G., Loeber, R., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Shen, S. (2005). Classification of antisocial behaviors along severity and frequency parameters. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 325-341. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. fulltext
Substance Use
SU1Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1985). Adolescent marijuana and alcohol use: The role of parents and peers revisited. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 11, 11-26. fulltext
SU2Van Kammen, W. B., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1991). Substance use and its relationship to conduct problems and delinquency in young boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 399-414.
SU3Van Kammen, W. B., & Loeber, R. (1992). Drugs, delinquency, and discipline. School Safety, 3: 7-10. fulltext
SU4Tarter, R. E., Blackson, T. C., Martin, C. S., Seilhamer, R., Pelham, W. E., & Loeber, R. (1993). Mutual dissatisfaction between mother and son in substance-abusing and normal families. American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions, 2, 116-125. fulltext
SU5Tarter, R. E., Blackson, T., Martin, C., Loeber, R. & Moss, H. (1993). Characteristics and correlates of child discipline practices in substance abuse and normal families. The American Journal on Addictions, 2, 18-25. fulltext
SU6Van Kammen, W. B., Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1994). Initiation of drug selling and its relationship with illicit drug use and serious delinquency in adolescent boys. In E. G. M. Weitekamp & H. J. Kerner (Eds.), Cross-National Longitudinal Research on Human Development and Criminal Behavior (pp. 229-241). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.
SU7Van Kammen, W. B., & Loeber, R. (1994). Are fluctuations in delinquent activities related to the onset and offset of juvenile illegal drug use and drug dealing? Journal of Drug Issues, 24, 9-24. fulltext
SU8Ammerman, R. T., Loeber, R., Kolko, D. J., & Blackson, T. C. (1994). Parental dissatisfaction with sons in substance abusing families: Relationship to child and parent dysfunction. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 3, 23-37. fulltext
SU9Blackson, T. C., Tarter, R. E., Loeber, R., Ammerman, R. T., & Windle, M. (1996). The influence of paternal substance abuse and difficult temperament in fathers and sons on sons' disengagement from family to deviant peers. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 389-411.
SU10Tarter, R., Moss, H., Blackson, T., Vanyukov, M., Brigham, J., & Loeber, R. (1998). Disaggregating the liability for drug use. In C. Wetherington & J. Falk (Eds.), Laboratory Studies of Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. NIDA Monograph PHS publication. fulltext
SU11Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & White, H. R. (1999), Developmental aspects of delinquency and internalizing problems and their association with persistent juvenile substance use between ages 7 and 18. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 322-332.
SU12White, H. R., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Developmental associations between substance use and violence. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 785-803.
SU13Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., & Lahey, B. B. (2001). Which aspects of ADHD are associated with tobacco use in early adolescence? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 493-502. fulltext
SU14White, H. R., Xie, M., Thompson, W., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2001). Psychopathology as a predictor of adolescent drug use trajectories. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 15, 227-236. fulltext
SU15White, H. R., Tice, P. C., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2002). Illegal acts committed under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39, 131-152. fulltext
SU16Loeber, R., Wei, E.H., & White, H.R. (2003). Developmental pathways to substance use and other problem behaviors. In W.L. Dewey, & L.S. Harris (Eds.), Problems of drug dependence 2002: Proceedings of the 64th Annual Scientific Meeting. The College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. (pp. 100-101). Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse, Research Monograph Series 183. fulltext
SU17White, H.R., Pandina, R.J., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2003). Developmental patterns of drug use and crime. In W.L. Dewey, & L.S. Harris (Eds.), Problems of drug dependence 2002: Proceedings of the 64th Annual Scientific Meeting. The College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. (pp. 107-109). Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Drug Abuse, Research Monograph Series 183. fulltext
SU18Wei, E.H., Loeber, R., & White, H.R. (2004). Teasing apart the developmental associations between alcohol and marijuana use and violence. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 20, 166-183. fulltext
SU19White, H.R., Nagin, D., Repogle, E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2004). Racial differences in trajectories of cigarette use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 76, 219-227. fulltext
SU20Hipwell, A.E., White, H.R., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Keenan, K., Chung, T., & Sembower, M. (2005). Young girls' expectancies aobut the effects of alcohol, future intentions and patterns of use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 630-639. New Brunswick, NJ: Alcohol Research Documentation, Inc.
Sex Offenses
SX1Wijk, A. Ph. Van, Loeber, R., Ferwerda, H., Smulders, A., & Vermeiren, R. (2005). Jeugdige zedendelinquenten en geweldplegers. Een vergelijkende studie op grond van de Pittsburgh Youth Study [Juvenile sex offenders and violent delinquents. A comparative study based on data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study]. Justitiele Verkenningen, 1, 105-118.
SX2van Wijk, Loeber, R., Vermeiren, R., Pardini, D., Bullens, R., & Doreleijers, T. (2005). Violent juvenile sex offenders compared with violent juvenile nonsex offenders: Explorative findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 333-352. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. fulltext
Therapist Behavior/Treatment
T1Loeber, R. (1971). Engineering the behavioral engineer. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 321-326.
T2Loeber, R., & Weisman, R.G. (1975). Contingencies of therapist and trainer performance. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 660-688.
T3Loeber, R., & Weisman, R. (1975). The discriminative control of therapist performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 331.
T4Loeber, R. (1987). Meaningful outcome criteria in prevention research. In J. A. Steinberg & M. M. Silverman (Eds.), Preventing mental disorders: A research perspective. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pittsburgh, PA 15213. fulltext
T5Loeber, R. (1997). The quest for delinquency prevention with lasting effects. In L. J. Schweinhart and D. P. Weikart (Eds.) Lasting Differences: The High/Scope Preschool Curriculum Comparison Study Through Age 23. Monograph #12 of The High/Scope Educational Research Foundation (pp. 75-79). Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press. fulltext
Theory
TH1Loeber, R. (2005). Foreword: The urgency to improve developmental theories. In D.P. Farrington (Ed.) Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending. Advances in criminological theory. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
TH2Loeber, R., Slot, W., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (in press). A three-dimensional, cumulative developmental model of serious delinquency. In P-O. Wikstrom & R. Sampson (Eds), The Social Contexts of Pathways in Crime: Contexts and Mechanisms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Violence
V1Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1984). Boys who fight at home and in school: Family conditions influencing cross-setting consistency and discontinuity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 759-768.
V2Loeber, R., & Tengs, T. (1986). The analysis of coercive chains between children, mothers, and siblings. Journal of Family Violence, 1, 51-70.
V3Fagot, B. I., Loeber, R., & Reid, J. B. (1988). Developmental determinants of male-to-female aggression. In G. W. Russell (Ed.), Violence and Intimate Adult Relationships. (pp. 91-107). Great Neck, New York: PMA.
V4Loeber, R., Tremblay, R. E., Gagnon, C., & Charlebois, P. (1989). Continuity and desistance in disruptive boys' early fighting in school. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 39-50.
V5Tremblay, R. E., Loeber, R., Gagnon, C., Charlebois, P., Larivee, S., & Le Blanc, M. (1991). Disruptive boys with stable and unstable high fighting behavior patterns during junior elementary school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 285-300.
V6Loeber, R. & Hay, D. F. (1994). Developmental approaches to aggression and conduct problems. In M. Rutter and D. F. Hay (Eds.), Development Through Life: A Handbook for Clinicians (pp. 488-516). Oxford: Blackwell. fulltext
V7Thornberry, T. P., Huizinga, D., & Loeber, R. (1995). The prevention of serious delinquency and violence: Implications from the Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. In J. C. Howell, B. Krisberg, J. D. Hawkins & J. J. Wilson (Eds.), Sourcebook on Serious, Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. (pp. 213-237). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. fulltext
V8Loeber R., & Hay, D. F. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371-410. fulltext
V9Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1998). The development of juvenile aggression and violence: Some common misconceptions and controversies. American Psychologist, 53, 242-259. fulltext
V10Kelley, B. T., Huizinga, D., Thornberry, T. P., & Loeber, R. (June 1997). Epidemiology of serious violence. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. fulltext
V11Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1998). Juvenile aggression at home and at school. In D. S. Elliott, K. R. Williams, & B. Hamburg (Eds.), Violence in American schools (pp. 94-126). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
V12Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Never too early, never too late: Risk factors and successful interventions for serious and violent juvenile offenders. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 7, 7-30. fulltext
V13Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., & Kalb, L. (2000). Physical fighting in childhood as a mental health risk. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1-8. fulltext
V14Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2003). How can the relationship between race and violence be explained? In D. F. Hawkins (Ed.), Violent crimes: Assessing race and ethnic differences (pp.213-237). New York: Cambridge University Press.
V15Loeber, R., DeLamatre, M., Tita, G., Cohen, J., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1999). Gun injury and mortality: The delinquent backgrounds of juvenile victims. Violence and Victims, 14, 339-352. fulltext
V16Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2000). Epidemiology of juvenile violence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Violence, 9, 733-748. fulltext
V17Loeber, R., Kalb, L., & Huizinga, D. (Aug. 2001). Serious injury victimization. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. fulltext
V18Loeber, R. (2002). Commentary to ISSBD Special Section on Aggression and violence in youth: Understanding youth aggression in developmental cultural context. International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development Newsletter, No. 2, Serial 42, 13-14. fulltext
V19Farrington, D.P., & Loeber, R. (2002). Serious and violent juvenile offenders. In M.K. Rosenheim, F.E. Zimring, D.S. Tanenhaus, & B. Dohrn (Eds.), A century of juvenile justice (pp. 206-236). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
V20Loeber, R., Burke, J.D., Mutchka, J., Lahey, B.B. (2004). Gun carrying and conduct disorder: A highly combustible combination? Implications for juvenile justice, and mental and public health. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
V21Farrington, D.P. (2001). Cross-national comparative studies in criminology. In H.N. Pontell & D. Schichor (Eds.), Contemporary issues in crime and criminal justice: Essays in honor of Gilbert Geis (pp. 307-320). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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