PUPILLARY RESPONSES, COGNITIVE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Stuart R. Steinhauer, Ph.D.
Research Associate Professor of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Mailing Address: Biometrics Research, 151R
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center
7180 Highland Drive,
Pittsburgh, PA 15206 USA
Tel. 412-365-5251 FAX 412-365-5259 Email: sthauer@ pitt.edu
II. General Background and Historical Perspective
III. Cognitive Psychophysiology and Pupillography:
Psychophysiological Measurement of Processing Effort, Capacity, and Information.
IV. Psychopathology and Pupillary Motility
section has two objectives: 1) to provide a brief overview of the pupillary
response in relation to cognitive processes in normal and abnormal populations,
and 2) to provide an update of papers during the past decade that have not been
reviewed in summary papers. The reference list includes papers published from 1990
onward; not all of these papers are summarized in the review.
following sections briefly review findings for components of information
processing as reflected in the human pupillary response, and the relation of
these measures to psychological phenomena in normal and neuropsychiatric patient
groups. Both the constriction of
the pupil to light (miosis), as well as the dilation (dilatation; mydriasis)
resulting from information delivery, have provided useful adjuncts in the study
of psychopathology, especially with reference to schizophrenia.
Following summaries of some of the seminal findings, more recent papers
are referenced. (Papers dealing
with sensory reactions, or neurological reactivity unrelated to cognitive
activation, are not usually included in this overview or the reference section).
Review Papers: Previous journal or book chapters which review pupillary
data in relation to psychology include a brief paper by Tryon (1975), Goldwater
(1982), Hakerem (1967), Hess (1972; 1975; 1987), and Beatty (1982 ;1986; Beatty
and Wagoner, 2000),.
Janisse (1974) published the proceedings of the Manitoba Pupil symposium of
1973, with relevant chapters by Hakerem, Peavler, Hess and Goodwin, Bernick, and
Rubin. Books dealing with the
psychology of the pupillary response have been published by Hess (1975), Janisse
(1977), and Loewenfeld (1993; see chapters 14 and 45, respectively, dealing with
psychology and psychiatry). A
particularly good recent overview has been provided by Andreassi (2000).
review of pupillary reactions in schizophrenia was provided by Zahn, Frith,
& Steinhauer (1991), following earlier reviews of psychophysiology and
psychopathology by Spohn and Patterson (1979) and Zahn (1986).
Much of the following review is adapted from Steinhauer and Hakerem
(1992). More recent findings
related to relatives of schizophrenic subjects have been summarized by
Steinhauer and Friedman (1995).
findings on pupillography have been presented at the International Colloquia on
the Pupil, beginning in 1963. The
most recent meeting was held at Asilimar, California in September, 2001.
The next meeting will be held in Crete in 2003.
For details, and information on
Pupillary studies, see the Pupil page of Peter Howarth http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/files/PUPIL/.
II. General Background and Historical Perspective
the pupillary aperture has been thought of as a figurative window to the mind;
with the advancement of medical sciences, the pupil began to serve as a literal
window on brain function. In her
1958 dissertation paper dealing primarily with pupillary dilatation, Loewenfeld
(1958) cited nearly 1600 references, including 114 dated prior to 1830; her 1993
book lists over 15,000 references, covering up to about 1985.
Incidental observations of pupillary dilation associated with increased
interest or arousal were well known, such as the use of belladonna to enlarge
the pupil artificially as a cosmetic effect, and wearing of eyeshades to obscure
any sudden dilatation for the poker player who might otherwise give away his
re-emergence of pupillary studies among psychologists is related to a series of
reports from several different laboratories in the early 1960s in the areas of
experimental psychology and experimental psychopathology.
The most polemic approach was generated by the initial papers of Eckhard
Hess claiming pupillary dilation to positive affect stimuli and constriction to
negative affect (Hess & Polt, 1960), which led to continuing controversies.
Sokolov (1963) emphasized the contributions of pupillary changes in
defining the orienting reaction to novel environmental stimuli.
Hess and Polt also began to report on pupillary dilation during mental
activities (Hess & Polt, 1964). More
carefully conducted studies began to appear involving threshold discrimination
(Hakerem & Sutton, 1966), and work by Kahneman and colleagues (e.g.,
Kahneman & Beatty, 1966) represented a much stronger commitment to the
developing concepts of cognitive psychology.
Psychophysiology and Pupillography:
Psychophysiological Measurement of Processing Effort,
Capacity, and Information. Among
those measures for which a correlate of both attentional effort and processing
activities have been studied, perhaps the most widely emphasized is the
pupillary dilation response (Beatty, 1982; Beatty, 1986; Goldwater, 1972;
Janisse, 1977). Pupil diameter enlarges with increasing effort during
performance. This can be observed
for purely mechanical effort, as when varying weights are picked up (Nunnally,
Knott, Duchnowski, & Parker, 1967) or even when a simple finger press
occurs, in which both response preparation and execution contribute to the
dilation (Richer, Silverman, & Beatty, 1983). Mental effort
has been manipulated by a number of means, including arithmetic problems of
varying difficulty (often a typical "mental stress" paradigm),
language-based tasks (including reading of material forward and backwards;
Metalis, Rhoades, Hess, & Petrovich, 1980), and especially the effect of
increasing memory load during the digit span task, in which pupil diameter
increases as the number of digits stored is increased (Kahneman & Beatty,
1966). Of special interest is that
as maximum effective storage (judged by performance) is reached, pupillary
dilation reaches a maximum (Peavler, 1974).
When memory is overloaded, the pupil may even decrease in diameter,
suggesting that it is sensitive to both the extent of processing capacity as
well as the breakdown of capacity (Poock, 1973; Granholm et al., 1996). Kahneman (1973) relied heavily on results from pupillary
experiments in the development of his treatise dealing with basic components of
attention and effort. More recent
approaches to information processing models such as neural networks have also
ustilized pupillary data (Siegle, 1999a).
dilation can also be evoked by tasks in which there is little effort employed in
recognizing a stimulus, but for which the "informational value" of the
stimulus is high. Thus, simple
click patterns show a quick habituation when the subject knows what each
subsequent stimulus will be, but a clear dilation occurs to the clicks when the
subject is asked to guess what stimulus pattern will occur (Hakerem, 1974).
Moreover, when the subject is not certain whether a click will actually
occur at a specific point in time, but the absence of a click indicates a
particular outcome (e.g., correct or incorrect, different amounts of monetary
payoff), the "absence" of the stimulus itself elicits a pupillary
dilation (Levine, 1969) which is related to the information conveyed by the
stimulus absence. Friedman et al.
(1973) observed that the amplitudes of pupillary dilation and the amplitude of
the P300 component of the event-related brain potential were inversely related
to the subjective probabilities (an interaction of the subject's guessing
behavior and the stimulus probabilities). Thus,
larger amplitudes were seen for the least likely events.
The same paradigm was employed by Bock (1976), who recorded pupillary and
ERP data from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, and from non-twin siblings.
with the complexities of stimulus qualities which affect pupil diameter, it is
worthwhile to take a brief look at one of the major controversies in pupillary
research -- the statements of Hess and colleagues (Hess & Polt, 1960; Hess,
1964) that positive affect is associated with dilation, while negative affect
results in constriction. Though the
notion of constriction to aversive stimuli has been widely rejected, responses
to arousing viusal stimuli continue to be studied (Aboyoun & Dabbs, 1998;
Dabbs, 1997). There have been many
critical reviews of this research (e.g., Janisse, 1977), as well as attempts by
Hess and his students to justify the work (Hess, Beaver, & Shrout, 1975).
Two of the problems involved in using complex visual stimuli, which have
usually been overlooked, will be mentioned.
consideration involves so-called control slides, which are typically presented
before each stimulus slide. The notion in several studies was that the control
and stimulus slides should be matched for brightness, so that no differential
constriction to the slides could occur, and differences could only be
attributable to the content of the target stimulus slide. This approach,
however, takes a naive view of the physiology of the optic system, including the
afferent pathway even at the level of the retina.
When stimuli of either different wavelengths or different intensities
strike similar regions of the retina, they differentially stimulate receptors,
which evoke pupillary constrictions. This
was exquisitely demonstrated over two decades ago by Kohn and Clynes (1969):
even matching for overall brightness did not eliminate sensory-related
constrictions to the onset of different hues.
source of confounding is related to the pupillary constriction produced by the
initial presentation of stimuli. This
portion of the response was usually ignored by researchers employing pictures,
who looked at average diameters over periods as long as ten seconds, rather than
the specific dynamic responses to the pictures used.
One exception to this was a study by Libby, Lacey and Lacey (1973), whose
data clearly showed the initial constriction resulting from stimulus
presentations. In their study,
pupillary dilation was most often seen to interesting pictures, and the
unpleasant stimuli overall yielded larger dilations than pleasant stimuli -- a
finding totally at odds with the Hess formulation.
Similarly, Steinhauer et al. (1983) examined the responses to a series of
pictures varying in emotional content, but covaried out effects of initial
diameter and the constriction produced by slide onset: the largest dilations
were evoked by stimuli reported as most aversive or most pleasant, with smaller
dilations to mildly unpleasant or pleasant stimuli, and the least dilation to
neutral pictures. Thus, the best controlled studies indicate that the level of
emotional stimulation or interest, regardless of valence, is related to the
pupillary dilation response, but the confounding effect of initial physiological
reactions to visual stimuli must be carefully eliminated.
Contributions: One of the more intriguing aspects of psychophysiological data is
that there is clear evidence that familial similarity can be observed in tonic
activity as well as in time-varying measures of cognitive activity (Boomsma
& Gabrielli, 1985). Patterns of
pupillary dilation have been examined among twin pairs in two dissertations
conducted by students of Hakerem. Bock (1976) compared pupillary dilation in identical twins,
fraternal twins, and non-twin siblings during a guessing task.
Both objective numerical analyses of similarity, as well as judges' blind
matching of pairs, indicated greater similarity of the pupil and ERP data for
identical twins than for fraternal twins or non-twin siblings.
A more recent dissertation (Gaudreau, 1991) used a forced-choice
procedure for matching pupillary waveforms, demonstrating significantly high
rates of matching identical twin pairs across two different tasks.
work has been conducted to examine underlying substrates of cognitive
performance and pupillary reactions. Beatty
(1989) demonstrated that the pupil could respond with extremely small average
dilations (.001 mm) to stimuli occurring at up to a rate of 3/sec.
Matthews et al. (1991) found that blockade of the sphincter by
thymoxamine eliminated the dilation that was produced by an effortful task. Granholm
et al. (1996) reexamined the use of processing load, presenting subjects with 5,
9 or 13 digits during a digit span task. As
expected, processing load increased as demand increased, but more clearly showed
stabilization when nearing maximum processing capacity, but decrease in pupil
diameter once capacity was exceeded.
function has been examined using the pupil in studies of syntactic anomaly (Schluroff,
1982), lexical ambiguity (Ben-Nun, 1986), and syntactic complexity (Just and
model the contributions of different sources contributing to pupillary movements
have included bioengineering models (see the chapter by Stark in Loewenfeld's
book). Hoeks and Levelt (1992), and
Hoeks and Ellenbroek (1993) have proposed a quantitative neural model, although
they did not account for contributions of the sympathetic pathway to dilation
processes. Steinhauer has proposed
a model in which sympathetic and parasympathetic components contribute
differentially to dilation under varying task requirements, with different time
courses for the contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways
(see Steinhauer and Hakerem, 1992).
Psychopathology and Pupillary Motility
early years of this century, aberrations in pupillary responsivity were
carefully noted in psychotic patients (cf. Hakerem & Lidsky, 1975; Hess,
1972), especially by German psychiatrists such as Bumke (1904) and Bach (1908),
and were followed up with studies by Lowenstein and Westphal (1933), Levine and
Schilder (1942), and May (1948) in the third and fourth decades.
Leonard Rubin, at Eastern Psychiatric Research Institute in Philadelphia,
was employing pupillary measurement to develop hypotheses of autonomic imbalance
in psychiatric patients (for an overview, see Rubin 1974).
While his attempts to define a variety of disorders based on the notions
of central adrenergic and/or cholinergic activity as assessed by the pupil
attracted some interest for a number of years, this conceptualization has been
heavily criticized as being overly simplistic, and has been rejected by most
researchers (see discussion by Loewenfeld, 1993).
colleagues at New York York State Psychiatric Institute conducted a number of
initial studies which indicated decreased light reactions and abnormal response
latencies in schizophrenics (Hakerem & Lidsky, 1969; Hakerem, Sutton, &
Zubin, 1964; Lidsky, Hakerem, & Sutton, 1971), as well as difficulties in
integrating irregular sequences of light pulses (Hakerem & Lidsky, 1975).
Decreased responsivity in schizophrenic patients for auditory and visual
pupillary responses during cognitive tasks was reported by Steinhauer, Hakerem,
and Spring (1979).
Zubin (1982) reported decreased dilation, as well as decreased P300 amplitudes
for schizophrenics compared to controls, during an auditory task in which
infrequent stimuli normally evoke substantial pupillary dilation and P300
al. (1992) recorded the averaged light reaction in schizophrenic patients during
neuroleptic treatment and subsequent (double-blind) drug free withdrawal.
Stabilization on haloperidol resulted in a significant increase in extent
of constriction than during a subsequent drug-free period in patients. Thus, neuroleptic treatment appeared to normalize the
response slightly, but generally still kept the response measure below the mean
for normals. Data during the
treatment phase were also found to predict likelihood of subsequent relapse.
been few additional studies of patients involving task-related dilation.
Straube (1982) reported that schizophrenics exhibited larger dilations
than controls during performance of the digit span task, which could be
interpreted as an indication that patients employed greater effort than did
controls. However, Granholm et al.
(1996) reported decreased dilation in schizophrenic patients during the digit
span task, a finding that appears to conflict with the report of Straube.
Morris et al. (1997) evaluated working memory using pupillary reactivity
in schizophrenics. Granholm et al.
(1999) have used the pupillary response to probe semantic incongruities during
verbal fluency in schizophrenic patients.
types of patient groups have been studied.
Patients with toxic exposure to organic solvents exhibit reduced
dilations during information processing tasks, but also show abnormal increases
in overall diameter when even slightly more complex tasks are presented that are
not difficult for normal subjects (Morrow & Steinhauer, 1995).
For alcoholic subjects, no differences between semantic and phonemic
tasks have been observed (O'Leary et al., 1980).
An interesting series of studies by Bitsios and colleagues (1996, 1998a,
1998b) has employed the pupillary light reaction to probe the effects of anxiety
and effectiveness of anxiolytics; the light reaction is reduced by anticipation
of a fear-evoking event (Bitsios et al, 1996).
Patients with anxiety disorders, who show reduced light reactions (Bakes
et al., 1990), show increasing light reaction amplitude when anxiolytics are
administered (Bitsios et al., 1998). Reduction
of dilation to fearful stimuli during desensitization treatment of phobic
patients has also been reported (Sturgeon et al, 1989).
Effects of rumination indicated by dilation have been examined among
depressed patients (Siegle, 1999b).
References: Publications from 1990 on are marked by an asterisk
*Abouyon, D.C., & Dabbs, J.M., Jr. (1998). The Hess pupil dilation
findings: Sex or novelty? Social Behavior & Personality, 26: 415-419.
*Andreassi, J.L. (2000). Chap
10, Pupillary response and behavior. In: Psychophysiology: Human Behavior &
Physiological Response. Mahwah,
N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., pp. 218-233.
Bach, L. (1908). Pupillenlehre. Anatomie, Physiologie und Pathologie.
Methodik der Untersuching. Berlin: Karger.
*Backs, R.W., & Walrath, L.C. (1992). Eye movement and pupillary
response indices of mental workload during visual search of symbolic displays. Applied
Ergonomics, 23: 243-254.
Bakes, A., Bradshaw, C.M., & Szabadi, E. (1990). Attenuation of the
pupillary light reflex in anxious patients. British Journal of Clinical
Pharmacology, 30: 377-381.
Beatty, J. (1982). Task-evoked pupillary responses, processing load, and
the structure of processing resources. Psychological Bulletin, 91:
Beatty, J. (1986). The pupillary system. In G. H. Coles, E. Donchin,
& S. W. Porges, (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, Process, and
Applications (pp. 43-50). New York: Guilford Press.
Beatty, J. (1989). Pupillometric signs of selective attention in man. In
E. Donchin, G. Galbraith, & M.L. Kietzman, (Eds.), Neurophysiology and
Psychology: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. New York: Academic
Press, pp. 138-143.
*Bernhardt, P.C., Dabbs, J.M., & Riad, J.K. (1996). Pupillometry
system of use in social psychology. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments,
& Computers, 28: 61-66.
*Birnbaum, M.H., & Thomann, K. (1996). Visual function in multiple
personality disorder. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 67:
*Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., Bradshaw, C.M., (1996). The inhibition of the
pupillary light reflex by the threat of an electric shock: a potential
laboratory model of human anxiety. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 10:
*Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., Bradshaw, C.M., (1998). The effects of
clonidine on the fear-inhibited light reflex. Journal of Psychopharmacology,
*Bitsios, P., Szabadi, E., Bradshaw, C.M., (1998). Sensitivity of the
fear-inhibited light reflex to diazepam. Psychopharmacology, 135: 93-98.
Bock, F. A. (1976). Pupillary dilation and vertex evoked potential
similarity in monozygotic and dizygotic twins and siblings. (Doctoral
dissertation, City University of New York, NY, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 36, 6432B.
Boomsma, D. I., & Gabrielli, W. F., Jr. (1985).
Behavioral genetic approaches to psychophysiological data. Psychophysiology,
G.G., Kindermann, S.S., Siegle, G.J., Granholm, E., Wong, E.C., & Buxton,
R.B. (1999). Brain activation and pupil response during covert performance of
the Stroop Color Word task. Journal of the International Neuropsychological
Society, 5: 308-319.
Bumke, O. (1904). Die Pupillenstörungen, Bei Geistes -- und
Nervenkrankheiten (Physiologie und Pathologie der Irisbewegungen). Jena:
*Cassady, J.M. (1996). Increased firing of neurons in the posterior
hypothalamus which precede classically conditioned pupillary dilations. Behavioral
Brain Research, 80: 111-121.
Chaney, R.H., Linzmayer, L., Grunberger, M., & Saletu, B. (1989).
Pupillary responses in recognizing awareness in persons with profound mental
retardation. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 69: 523-528.
*Chapman, C.R., Oka, S., Bradshaw, D.H., Jacobson, R.C., &
Donaldson, G.W. (1999). Phasic pupil dilation response to noxious stimulation in
normal volunteers: Relationship to brain evoked potentials and pain report. Psychophysiology,
*Dabbs, J.M., Jr. (1997). Testosterone and pupillary response to
auditory sexual stimuli. Physiology & Behavior, 62: 909-912.
*Deijen, J.B., van der Beeke, E.J., Orlebeke, J.F., & van den Berg,
H. (1992). Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: Effects on mood, memory,
performance and mental effort. Psychopharmacology, 109: 489-496.
*Deijen, J.B., Heemstra, M.L., & Orlebeke, J.F. (1995).
Pupillometric assessment of compensatory effort in a memory search task under
physical and pharmacologically-induced suboptimal states. Canadian Journal of
Experimental Psychology, 49: 387-396.
*Deijen, J.B., Orlebeke, J.F., & Rijsdijk, F.V. (1993). Effect of
depression on psychomotor skills, eye movements and recognition-memory. Journal
of Affective Disorders, 29: 33-40.
*Ellermeier, W., & Westphal, W. (1995). Gender differences in pain
ratings and pupil reactions to painful pressure stimuli. Pain, 61:
*Fountoulakis, K, Fotiou, F, Iacovides, A., Tsiptsios, J. Golas, A.,
Tsolaki, M., & Ierodiakonou, C. (1999). Changes in pupil reaction to light
in melancholic patients. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 31:
Friedman, D., Hakerem, G., Sutton, S., & Fleiss, J. L. (1973).
Effect of stimulus uncertainty on the pupillary dilation response and the vertex
evoked potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology,
*Garrett, J.C., Harrison, D.W., & Kell, P.L. (1989). Pupillometric
assessment of arousal to sexual stimuli: Novelty effects or preference? Archives
of Sexual Behavior, 18: 191-201.
*Gaudreau, L. (1991). Event-related brain potentials and pupillary
responses using a cognitive task in monozygotic twins.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York, New York.
*Gavriysky, V.S. (1991). Human pupillary light reflex and reaction time
at different intensity of light stimulation. International Journal of
Psychophysiology, 11: 261-268.
Goldwater, B. (1972). Psychological significance of pupillary movements.
Psychological Bulletin, 77: 340-355.
*Granholm, E., Asarnow, R.F., Sarkin, A.J., & Dykes, K.L.
(1996). Pupillary responses index cognitive resource limitations. Psychophysiology,
*Granholm, E., Chock, D., & Morris, S. Pupillary responses evoked
during verbal fluency tasks indicate semantic network dysfunction in
schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20:
*Granholm, E., Morris, S., Sarkin, A., Asarnow, R., & Jeste, D.
(1998). Pupillary responses index overload of working memory resources in
schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106: 458-467, 1996.
*Grunberger, J., Linzmayer, L., Dietzel, M. & Saletu, B. (1993) The
effect of biologically-active light on the noo- [sic] and thymopsyche and on
psychophysiological variables in healthy volunteers. International Journal of
Psychophysiology, 15: 27-37.
Hakerem, G. (1967). Pupillography. In P. H. Venables & I. Martin,
(Eds.), A Manual of Psychophysiological Methods (pp. 335-349). Amsterdam:
North-Holland Publishing Co.
Hakerem, G. (1974). Conceptual stimuli, pupillary dilation and evoked
cortical potentials: A review of recent advances. In M.-P. Janisse, (Ed.), Pupillary
Dynamics and Behavior (pp. 135-158). New York: Plenum Press.
Hakerem G., & Lidsky, A. (1969). Pupillary reactions to sequences of
light and variable dark pulses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,
Hakerem G., & Lidsky, A. (1975). Characteristics of pupillary
reactivity in psychiatric patients and normal controls. In M. L. Kietzman, S.
Sutton, & J. Zubin, (Eds.) Experimental Approaches to Psychopathology,
(pp. 61-72). New York: Academic Press.
Hakerem, G., & Sutton, S. (1966). Pupillary response at visual
threshold. Nature, 212: 485-486.
Hakerem, G., Sutton, S., & Zubin, J. (1964). Pupillary reactions to
light in schizophrenic patients and normals. New York Academy of Sciences,
*Hensley, W.E. (1990). Pupillary dilation revisited: The constriction of
a nonverbal cue. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 5: 97-104.
Hess, E.H. (1964). Attitude and pupil size. Scientific American,
Hess, E. H. (1972). Pupillometrics: A method of studying mental,
emotional, and sensory processes. In N. S. Greenfield, & R. A. Sternbach
(Eds.), Handbook of Psychophysiology (pp. 491-531). New York: Holt,
Rinehart & Winston.
Hess, E.H. (1975) The Tell-Tale Eye: How Your Eyes Reveal Hidden
Thoughts and Emotions. NY: van Nostrand Reinhold.
Hess, E. H., Beaver, P. W., & Shrout, P. E. (1975). Brightness
contrast effects in a pupillometric experiment. Perception &
Psychophysics, 18: 125-127.
Hess, E.H., & Petrovich, S.B. (1987). Pupillary behavior in
communication. In A.W. Siegman & S. Feldstien (Eds.), Nonverbal Behavior
and Communication, 2nd Edition. Hillsdale, NJ: pp. 327-349.
Hess, E. H., & Polt, J. M. (1960). Pupil size as related to interest
value of visual stimuli. Science, 132: 349-350.
Hess, E. H., & Polt, J. M. (1964). Pupil size in relation to mental
activity during simple problem-solving. Science, 143: 1190-1192.
*Hoeks, B., & Ellenbroek, B.A. (1993). A neural basis for a
quantitative pupillary model. Journal
of Psychophysiology, 7: 315-324.
*Hoeks, B., & Levelt, W.J.M. (1992). Pupillary dilation as a measure of attention:
A quantitative system analysis. Behavior Research Methods
Instrumentation & Computers, 25: 16-26.
*Hyoenae, J., Tommola, J, & Alaja, A.-M. (1995). Pupil dilation as a
measure of processing load in simultaneous interpretation and other language
tasks. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A: 598-512.
*Iriki, A., Tanaka, M., & Iwamura, Y. (1996) Attention-induced
neuronal activity in the monkey somatosensory cortex revealed by pupillometrics.
Neuroscience Research, 25: 173-181.
Janisse, M.-P., ed. (1974). Pupillary Dynamics and Behavior.
NY: Plenum Press.
Janisse, M.-P. (1977). Pupillometry: The Psychology of the Pupillary
Response. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Co.
*Jennings, J.R., van der Molen, M.W. & Steinhauer,S.R. (1998).
Preparing the heart, eye, and brain: Foreperiod length effects in a non-aging
paradigm. Psychophysiology, 35: 90-98.
*Just, M., & Carpenter, P.A. (1993). The intensity dimension of
thought: Pupillometric indices of sentence processing. Canadian Journal of
Psychology, 47: 310-339. (also in J.M. Henderson & M. Singer (Eds.), Reading
and Language Processing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass., pp. 182-211,
Kahneman, D., & Beatty, J. (1966). Pupil diameter and load on
memory. Science, 154: 1583-1585.
Kahneman, D., & Beatty, J. (1967). Pupillary response in a pitch
discrimination task. Perception & Psychophysics, 2: 101-105.
Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and Effort. Englewood Cliffs,
*Kim, M., Schwartz, R.L., & Heilman, K.M. (1998). Lateral
asymmetries of pupillary responses. Cortex, 34: 753-762.
*Kim, M., Barrett, A.M., & Heilman, K.M. (1999). Pupillographic
findings in neglect. Journal of Neurology, Neurosuyrgery and Psychiatry,
Kohn, M., & Clynes, M. (1969). Color dynamics of the pupil. In M.
Clynes, (Ed.), Rein control, or unidirectional rate sensitivity, a fundamental
dynamic and organizing function in biology. Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences, 156: 931-950.
*Lester, D., & Kimmel, H.L. (1989). Autonomic nervous system balance
and personality. Personality & Individual Differences, 10: 373-374.
Levine, A., & Schilder, P. (1942). The catatonic pupil. The
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 96: 1-12.
Levine, S. (1969). Pupillary dilation as a function of stimulus
uncertainty. Unpublished master's thesis, Queens College of the City
University of New York.
Libby, W.L., Jr., Lacey, B.C., & Lacey, J.I. (1973). Pupillary and
cardiac activity during visual attention. Psychophysiology, 10: 270-294.
Lidsky, A., Hakerem, G., & Sutton, S. (1971). Pupillary reactions to
single light pulses in psychiatric patients and normals. The Journal of
Nervous and Mental Disease, 153, 286-291.
Loewenfeld, I. E. (1958). Mechanisms of reflex dilatation of the pupil. Documenta
Ophthalmologica, 12: 185-448.
*Loewenfeld, I. E. (1993). The Pupil: Anatomy, Physiology, and
Clinical Applications. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Lowenstein, O., & Loewenfeld, I. E. (1962). The pupil. In H. Davson,
(Ed.), The Eye, Vol 3., (pp. 231-267). New York: Academic Press.
Lowenstein, O., & Westphal, A. (1933). Experimentelle und
klinische Studien zur Physiologie der pupillenbewegungen. Berlin: Karger.
* Lubow, R.E., & Fein, O. (1996). Pupillary size in response to a
visual guilty knowledge test: New technique for the detection of deception. Journal
of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2: 164-177.
*Matthews, G., Middleton, W., Gilmartin, B., & Bullimore, M.A.
(1991). Pupillary diameter and cognitive load. Journal of Psychophysiology,
May, P.R.A. (1948). Pupillary abnormalities in schizophrenia during
muscular effort. Journal of Mental Science, 94, 89-98.
Metalis, S. A., Rhoades, B. K., Hess, E. H., & Petrovich, S. B.
(1980). Pupillometric assessment of reading using materials in normal and
reversed orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65: 359-363.
*Millot, J.L., Brand, G., & Schmitt, A. (1996). Affective attitudes
of children and adults in relation to the pupil diameter of a cat: Preliminary
data. Anthrozooes, 9: 85-87.
*Miyao, M., Ishihara, S. Ishigaki, H., Sugiura, T., Matsura, E., Furuta,
M., & Sakata, T. (1993). Psychology of computer use: XXX. Effects of
presentation speed on pupil size using negative and positive CRTs. Perceptual
& Motor Skills, 77: 979-984.
*Morris, S.K., Granholm, E., Sarkin, A.J., & Jeste, D.V. (1997).
Effects of schizophrenia and aging on pupillographic measures of working memory.
Schizophrenia Research, 30: 119-128.
*Morrow, L.A., & Steinhauer, S.R. (1995). Alterations in heart rate
and pupillary response in persons with organic solvent exposure. Biological
Psychiatry, 37: 721-730.
*Mudd, S., Conway, C.G., & Schindler, D.E. (1990). The eye as music
critic: Pupil response and verbal preferences. Studia Psychologica, 32:
Nunnally, J. C., Knott, P. D., Duchnowski, A., & Parker, R. (1967).
Pupillary response as a general measure of activation. Perception &
Psychophysics, 2: 149-150.
O'Leary, M.E., Cummings, C., Salzberg, P.M., & Parton, M. (1980).
Pupillary response and information processing in alcoholics: Preliminary
findings. Research Communications in Substance Abuse, 1: 9-16.
Peavler, W. S. (1974). Pupil size, information overload, and performance
differences. Psychophysiology, 11: 559-566.
Poock G. K. (1973). Information processing vs. pupil diameter. Perceptual
and Motor Skills, 37: 1000-1002.
Richer, F., Silverman, C., & Beatty, J. (1983). Response selection
and initiation in speeded reactions: A pupillometric analysis. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 9: 360-370.
Rubin, L. S. (1974). The utilization of pupillometry in the differential
diagnosis and treatment of psychotic and behavioral disorders. In M.-P. Janisse,
(Ed.), Pupillary dynamics and behavior (pp. 75-134). New York: Plenum
*Rosse, R.B., Alim, T.N., Johri, S.K., Hess, A.L., & Deutsch, S.I.
(1995). Anxiety and pupil reactivity in cocaine dependent subjects endorsing
cocaine-induced paranoia: Preliminary report. Addiction, 90: 981-984.
*Siegle, G.J. (1999a). A neural network model of attention biases in
depression. In J. Reggia & E.
Ruppin (Eds.)., Disorders of Brain, Behavior, and cognition: The
Neurocomputational Perspective. NY: Elsevier, pp. 415-441.
*Siegle, G.J. (1999b). Cognitive and physiological aspects of
attention to personally relevant negative information in depression.
Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, San Diego State University, University
of California, San Diego. This
document is available at http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/CAL/greg/dissert/
Sokolov, E. (1963). Perception and the conditioned reflex. New
Spohn, H.E., & Patterson, T. P. (1979). Recent studies of
psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 5: 581-611.
Steinhauer, S.R. (1982). Evoked and emitted pupillary responses and
event-related potentials as a function of reward and task involvement.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York, NY.
Steinhauer, S. R., Boller, F., Zubin, J., & Pearlman, S. (1983).
Pupillary dilation to emotional visual stimuli revisited. Psychophysiology,
*Steinhauer, S.R., & Friedman, D. (1995). Cognitive
psychophysiological indicators of vulnerability in relatives of schizophrenics.
In: G.A. Miller (Ed.), High Risk Research in Psychopathology. New York:
Springer-Verlag, pp. 158-180.
Steinhauer, S., Hakerem, G., & Spring, B. (1979). The pupillary
response as a potential indicator of vulnerability to schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology
Bulletin, 15, 44-45.
*Steinhauer, S.R. & Hakerem, G. (1992). The pupillary response in cognitive psychophysiology and
schizophrenia. In: Friedman, D., and Bruder, G. (Eds.), Psychophysiology and
experimental psychopathology: A tribute to Samuel Sutton. Annals of the New
York Academy of Sciences, 658:
Steinhauer, S. R., & Zubin, J. (1982). Vulnerability to
schizophrenia: Information processing in the pupil and event-related potential.
In E. Usdin & I. Hanin, (Eds.) Biological markers in psychiatry and
neurology (pp. 371-385). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Sturgeon, R.S., Cooper, L.M., & Howell, R.J. (1989). Pupil response:
A psychophysiological measure of fear during analogue desensitization. Perceptual
& Motor Skills, 69: 1351-1367.
Straube. E. R. (1980). Reduced reactivity and psychopathology --
Examples from research on schizophrenia. In J. Koukkou, D. Lehmann, & J.
Angst, (Eds.), Functional states of the brain: Their determinants (pp.
291-307). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Straube, E. R. (1982). Pupillometric, cardiac, and electrodermal
reactivity of schizophrenic patients under different stimulus conditions. Psychophysiology,
Tryon, W.W. (1975). Pupillometry: A survey of sources of variation. Psychophysiology,
van der Molen, M.W., Boomsma, D.I., Jennings, J.R., & Nieuwboer, R.T.
(1989). Does the heart know what the eye sees? A cardiac/pupillometric analysis
of motor preparation and response execution. Psychophysiology, 26: 70-80.
*Weiskrantz, L. (1998). Pupillary responses with and without awareness
in blindsight. Consciousness & Cognition: An International Journal,
*Weiskrantz, L., Cowey, A., & Barbur, J.L. (1999). Differential
pupillary constriction and awareness in the absence of striate cortex. Brain,
*Whipple, B., Ogden, G., Komisaruk, BR. (1992). Physiological correlates
of imagery-induced orgasm in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 21:
*Winkel, M. (1993). Autonomic differentiation of temporal components of
sexist humor. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 6: 27-42.
T. P. (1986). Psychophysiological approaches to psychopathology. In M. G. H.
Coles , E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges, (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems,
process, and applications (pp. 508-610). New York: Guilford Press.
*Zahn, T.P., Frith, C.D., & Steinhauer, S.R. (1991). Autonomic
functioning in schizophrenia: Electrodermal activity, heart rate, pupillography.
In S. R. Steinhauer, J. H. Gruzelier, & J. Zubin, (Eds.), Handbook of
Schizophrenia, Vol. 5: Neuropsychology, Psychophysiology and Information
Processing (pp. 185-224). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Biometrics Research Program Links:
Downloads, Related Links
Biometrics Research Lab
||The Psycholinguistics Lab||Program in Cognitive Affective Neuroscience (PICAN)|